Thursday, April 23, 2009


1375–1425; late ME <>neologism
Greek neo 'new' + logos 'word'
1. A new word, expression, or usage.
2. The creation or use of new words or senses.
3. Psychology
a. The invention of new words regarded as a symptom of certain psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia.
b. A word so invented.
4. Theology A new doctrine or a new interpretation of scripture.

[Middle English, from Late Latin neophytus, from Greek neophutos : neo-, neo- + -phutos, planted (from phuein, to bring forth; see bheu - in Indo-European roots).]
1. A recent convert to a belief; a proselyte.
2. A beginner or novice: a neophyte at politics.
a. Roman Catholic Church A newly ordained priest.
b. A novice of a religious order or congregation.

Middle English noxius, from Latin, from noxa harm; akin to Latin nocēre to harm, nec-, nex violent death, Greek nekros dead body
1. Harmful to living things; injurious to health: noxious chemical wastes.
2. Harmful to the mind or morals; corrupting: noxious ideas.

Thursday, March 26, 2009


Latin roots magn- great, and anima, soul
1. The quality of being magnanimous.
2. A magnanimous act.

The magnanimity of Alexander towards the captive Porus (1696).

1500–10; < href="">

[Middle English, from Old French, from Medieval Latin mallebilis, from mallere, to hammer, from Latin malleus, hammer; see mel- in Indo-European roots.]
1. Capable of being shaped or formed, as by hammering or pressure: a malleable metal.
2. Easily controlled or influenced; tractable.
3. Able to adjust to changing circumstances; adaptable: the malleable mind of the pragmatist.
capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out; "ductile copper"; "malleable metals such as gold"; "they soaked the leather to made it pliable"; "pliant molten glass"; "made of highly tensile steel alloy"

1325–75; ME <>

युद्ध संबंधी

2 belonging to or suitable for war martial music

रण-विषयक, युद्ध संबंधी

n martial ˈart
(usuallymartial arts) a traditional way of fighting in sports such as judo or karate.

युद्ध विद्या

martial law
the ruling of a country by the army in time of war or great national emergency, when ordinary law does not apply The country is now under martial law

सैनिक कानून
Possibly after Samuel Augustus Maverick (1803-1870), American cattleman who left the calves in his herd unbranded .]
A maverick is an unbranded range animal, especially a motherless calf. It can also mean a person who thinks independently, a lone dissenter, a non-conformist or rebel. Sometimes it means to swear to one
independent in behavior or thought; "she led a somewhat irregular private life"; "maverick politicians"

1640–50; <>

1350–1400; ME <>

1525–35; <>misanthrope
Greek misanthrōpos hating humankind, from misein to hate + anthrōpos human being
One who hates or mistrusts humankind

1375–1425; late ME mitigaten <>

Middle English mollifien, from Middle French mollifier, from Late Latin mollificare, from Latin mollis soft; akin to Greek amaldynein to soften, Sanskrit mṛdu soft, and probably to Greek malakos soft, amblys dull, Old English meltan to melt

1. to soften in feeling or temper, as a person; pacify; appease.
2. to mitigate or reduce; soften: to mollify one's demands.

v mollify [ˈmolifai]
to calm, soothe or lessen the anger of.

शांत करना

n mollifiˈcation [-fi-]


Latin morosus, literally, capricious, from mor-, mos will
1. Gloomily or sullenly ill-humored, as a person or mood.
2. characterized by or expressing gloom
adj morose [məˈrəus]
angry and silent.

चिड़चिड़ा, रूखा

adv moˈrosely

उदासी, रूखापन

n moˈroseness

उदासी, रूखापन

Middle English mondeyne, from Anglo-French mundain, from Late Latin mundanus, from Latin mundus world
1. of or pertaining to this world or earth as contrasted with heaven; worldly; earthly: mundane affairs.
2. common; ordinary; banal; unimaginative.
3. of or pertaining to the world, universe, or earth.


Latin Lacnicus, Spartan, from Greek Laknikos, from Lakn, a Spartan (from the reputation of the Spartans for brevity of speech).]
Using or marked by the use of few words; terse or concise. See Synonyms at silent.

1300–50; (v.) ME lauden
1. Praise; glorification.
2. A hymn or song of praise.
3. lauds also Lauds (used with a sing. or pl. verb)
a. Ecclesiastical The service of prayers following the matins and constituting with them the first of the seven canonical hours.
b. The time appointed for this service

[From Latin loqux, loquc-, from loqu, to speak; see tolkw- in Indo-European roots.]
1. talking or tending to talk much or freely; talkative; chattering; babbling; garrulous: a loquacious dinner guest.
2. characterized by excessive talk; wordy: easily the most loquacious play of the season.

[Latin lcidus, from lcre, to shine; see leuk- in Indo-European roots.]
1. easily understood; completely intelligible or comprehensible: a lucid explanation.
2. characterized by clear perception or understanding; rational or sane: a lucid moment in his madness.
3. shining or bright.
4. clear; pellucid; transparent.
Lucid dreaming

transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity; "the cold crystalline water of melted snow"; "crystal clear skies"; "could see the sand on the bottom of the limpid pool"; "lucid air"; "a pellucid brook"; "transparent crystal"

[Middle English, from Old French lumineux, from Latin lminsus, from lmen, lmin-, light; see leuk- in Indo-European roots.]
1. Emitting light, especially emitting self-generated light.
2. Full of light; illuminated. See Synonyms at bright.
a. Easily comprehended; clear: luminous prose.
b. Enlightened and intelligent; inspiring: luminous ideas.
softly bright or radiant; "a house aglow with lights"; "glowing embers"; "lambent tongues of flame"; "the lucent moon"; "a sky luminous with stars"

giving out light; faintly shining so as to be visible in the dark a luminous clock-face. liggewend
प्रकाशमान, चमकीला
n lumiˈnosity [-ˈno-]
ज्योति, दीप्ति, जगमगाहट




[French iconoclaste, from Medieval Greek eikonoklast s, smasher of religious images : eikono-, icono- + Greek -klast s, breaker (from Greek kl n, klas-, to break).]
a breaker or destroyer of images, esp. those set up for religious veneration.

a person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, etc., as being based on error or superstition.
a destroyer of images used in religious worship
image breaker

worshiping idols.

blindly adoring.

of or pertaining to idolatry.

"The Adoration of the Golden Calf" by Nicolas Poussin

[Middle English iminent, from Old French imminent, from Latin immin ns, imminent-, present participle of immin re, to overhang : in-, in; see in-2 + -min re, to jut, threaten; see men-2 in Indo-European roots.]
1. likely to occur at any moment; impending: Her death is imminent.
2. projecting or leaning forward; overhanging.

adj imminent [ˈiminənt]
(especially of something unpleasant) likely to happen etc very soon A storm is imminent.


n imminence


not mutable; unchangeable; changeless.

not subject or susceptible to change or variation in form or quality or nature; "the view of that time was that all species were immutable, created by God"
1. without emotion; apathetic; unmoved.
2. calm; serene.
3. unconscious; insensible.
4. not subject to suffering.
deliberately impassive in manner; "deadpan humor"; "his face remained expressionless as the verdict was read"
adj impassive [imˈpӕsiv]
not feeling or showing emotion an impassive face.

भावना शून्य

adv imˈpassively


[in- + pecunious, rich (from Middle English, from Old French pecunios, from Latin pecnisus, from pecnia, money, wealth; see peku- in Indo-European roots).]
having little or no money; penniless; poor.

Unshakably calm and collected. See Synonyms at cool.
not easily perturbed or excited or upset; marked by extreme calm and composure; "hitherto imperturbable, he now showed signs of alarm"; "an imperturbable self-possession"; "unflappable in a crisis"

Middle English, violent, from Old French impetueux, from Late Latin impetu sus, from Latin impetus, impetus; see impetus.]
1. of, pertaining to, or characterized by sudden or rash action, emotion, etc.; impulsive: an impetuous decision; an impetuous person.
2. having great impetus; moving with great force; violent: the impetuous winds.
adj impetuous [imˈpetjuəs]
acting in a hasty manner and without thinking


adv imˈpetuously

उतावलापन, जल्दबाजी

n imˌpetuˈosity [-ˈo-]

उतावलापन, जल्दबाजी

[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin impl c bilis : in-, not; see in-1 + pl c bilis, placable; see placable.]

not to be appeased, mollified, or pacified; inexorable: an implacable enemy.

“Taken” he is implacable

[Latin imp nit s, from imp ne, without punishment : in-, not; see in-1 + poena, penalty (from Greek poin ; see kwei-1 in Indo-European roots).]
1. exemption from punishment.
2. immunity from detrimental effects, as of an action.

[Latin incho tus, past participle of incho re, to begin, alteration of incoh re : in-, in; see in-2 + cohum, strap from yoke to harness.]
1. not yet completed or fully developed; rudimentary.
2. just begun; incipient.
3. not organized; lacking order: an inchoate mass of ideas on the subject.

1580–90; <>

[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin indifferns, indifferent- : in-, not; see in-1 + differns, different; see different.]
1. without interest or concern; not caring; apathetic: his indifferent attitude toward the suffering of others.
2. having no bias, prejudice, or preference; impartial; disinterested.
3. neither good nor bad in character or quality; average; routine: an indifferent specimen.
4. not particularly good, important, etc.; unremarkable; unnotable: an indifferent success; an indifferent performance.
5. of only moderate amount, extent, etc.
6. not making a difference, or mattering, one way or the other.
7. immaterial or unimportant.
8. not essential or obligatory, as an observance.
9. making no difference or distinction, as between persons or things: indifferent justice.
10. neutral in chemical, electric, or magnetic quality.
11. Biology. not differentiated or specialized, as cells or tissues.

12. an ethically or morally indifferent act.
13. a person who is indifferent, esp. in matters of religion or politics.

14. Archaic. indifferently: I am indifferent well.
1 (often withto) showing no interest in or not caring about (opinions, events etc) She is quite indifferent to other people's suffering.

तटस्थ, तुच्छ

2 not very good He is a rather indifferent card-player.

सामान्य, घटिया

adv inˈdifferently


n inˈdifference
the state of showing no interest in, or concern about, something She showed complete indifference to the cries of the baby


[Latin iners, inert- : in-, not; see in-1 + ars, skill; see ar- in Indo-European
1. having no inherent power of action, motion, or resistance (opposed to active ): inert matter.
2. Chemistry. having little or no ability to react, as nitrogen that occurs uncombined in the atmosphere.
3. Pharmacology. having no pharmacological action, as the excipient of a pill.
4. inactive or sluggish by habit or nature.
slow and apathetic; "she was fat and inert"; "a sluggish worker"; "a mind grown torpid in old age"

1 without the power to move A stone is an inert object.


2 (of people) not wanting to move, act or think lazy, inert people.

निष्क्रिय, आलसी

n iˈnertness

जड़त्व, अक्रियता

n iˈnertia [-ʃiə]
the state of being inert It was difficult to overcome the feeling of inertia that the wine and heat had brought on.


1. Inappropriate; ill-chosen: an infelicitous remark.
2. Not happy; unfortunate

1. Lacking in cunning, guile, or worldliness; artless.
2. Openly straightforward or frank; candid. See Synonyms at naive.
3. Obsolete Ingenious.

[Late Latin inim c lis, from Latin inim cus, enemy; see enemy.]
1. adverse in tendency or effect; unfavorable; harmful: a climate inimical to health.
2. unfriendly; hostile: a cold, inimical gaze

[From Latin innocuus : in-, not; see in-1 + nocuus, harmful (from noc re, to harm; see nek-1 in Indo-European roots).]
1. Having no adverse effect; harmless.
2. Not likely to offend or provoke to strong emotion; insipid.
harmless This drug was at first mistakenly thought to be innocuous.

हानि न करने वाला

French insipide, from Late Latin nsipidus : Latin in-, not; see in-1 + Latin sapidus, savory (from sapere, to taste; see sep- in Indo-European roots).]
1. Lacking flavor or zest; not tasty.
2. Lacking qualities that excite, stimulate, or interest; dull.

1. Difficult to manage or govern; stubborn. See Synonyms at unruly.
2. Difficult to mold or manipulate: intractable materials.
3. Difficult to alleviate, remedy, or cure: intractable pain.

[French intransigeant, from Spanish intransigente : in-, not (from Latin; see in-1) + transigente, present participle of transigir, to compromise (from Latin trnsigere, to come to an agreement : trns-, trans- + agere, to drive; see ag- in Indo-European roots).]

Refusing to moderate a position, especially an extreme position; uncompromising

[Latin intrepidus : in-, not; see in-1 + trepidus, alarmed.]

Resolutely courageous; fearless. See Synonyms at brave.

bold and fearless an intrepid explorer.

निर्भय, निडर, साहसी

adv inˈtrepidly

निर्भिकता, निडरता

n intreˈpidity [-ˈpi-]

निर्भिकता, निडरता


To habituate to something undesirable, especially by prolonged subjection; accustom: "Though the food became no more palatable, he soon became sufficiently inured to it" John Barth.

[Middle English envegle, alteration of Old French aveugler, to blind, from aveugle, blind, from Vulgar Latin *aboculus : Latin ab-, away from; see ab-1 + Latin oculus, eye (probably loan-translation of Gaulish exsops : exs-, from + ops, eye); see okw- in Indo-European roots.]
1. to entice, lure, or ensnare by flattery or artful talk or inducements (usually fol. by into): to inveigle a person into playing bridge.
2. to acquire, win, or obtain by beguiling talk or methods (usually fol. by from or away): to inveigle a theater pass from a person.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Late Latin rscibilis, from Latin rsc, to be angry, from ra, anger; see eis- in Indo-European roots.]
1. easily provoked to anger; very irritable: an irascible old man.
2. characterized or produced by anger: an irascible response.

Irascible bull


Overfamiliar through overuse; trite.
repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse; "bromidic sermons"; "his remarks were trite and commonplace"; "hackneyed phrases"; "a stock answer"; "repeating threadbare jokes"; "parroting some timeworn axiom"; "the trite metaphor `hard as nails'"

[Middle English alcioun, from Latin alcy n, halcy n, from Greek halku n, a mythical bird, kingfisher, alteration (influenced by hals, salt, sea, and ku n, conceiving) of alku n.]
1. A kingfisher, especially one of the genus Halcyon.
2. A fabled bird, identified with the kingfisher, that was supposed to have had the power to calm the wind and the waves while it nested on the sea during the winter solstice.
1. Calm and peaceful; tranquil.
2. Prosperous; golden: halcyon years.

[Middle English arang, a speech to an assembly, from Old French harangue, from Old Italian aringa, from aringare, to speak in public, probably from aringo, arringa, public square, meeting place, of Germanic origin; see koro- in Indo-European roots.]
1. A long pompous speech, especially one delivered before a gathering.
2. A speech or piece of writing characterized by strong feeling or expression; a tirade.
v. ha·rangued, ha·rangu·ing, ha·rangues
To deliver a harangue to.
To deliver a harangue.

a long loud speech a harangue from the headmaster on good behaviour.
उत्तेजक भाषण
उत्तेजक भाषण देना

[Greek h don , pleasure; see sw d- in Indo-European roots + -ism.]
1. Pursuit of or devotion to pleasure, especially to the pleasures of the senses.
2. Philosophy The ethical doctrine holding that only what is pleasant or has pleasant consequences is intrinsically good.
3. Psychology The doctrine holding that behavior is motivated by the desire for pleasure and the avoidance of pain.

[Greek hgemoni, from hgemn, leader; see hegemon.]
–noun, plural -nies.
1. leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a confederation.
2. leadership; predominance.
3. (esp. among smaller nations) aggression or expansionism by large nations in an effort to achieve world domination

1. Of or relating to heresy or heretics.
2. Characterized by, revealing, or approaching departure from established beliefs or standards.

Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief, especially a religion, that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief.

[Greek, excessive pride, wanton violence; see ud- in Indo-European roots.]
excessive pride or self-confidence; arrogance.
The story of Icarus and his wax wings that melt when he flies too close to the sun is an excellent example of hubris. If he had only listened to his father's advice...The hubris at the performance was astounding; no one seems to have humility anymore...

[Latin hyperbol , from Greek huperbol , excess, from huperballein, to exceed : huper, beyond; see hyper- + ballein, to throw; see gwel - in Indo-European roots.]

Hyperbole is a form of speech that could be described as 'extravagant exaggeration'. It is not appropriate when writing essays or reports, but a little hyperbole (pronounced 'hi-per-bo-lee') is an effective way to colour the speech of a character in a short story, or to make a point effectively in a humourous piece of writing.
It may be used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is rarely meant to be taken literally.